ISSN: 1818-1074

Issue 31,

Issue 31

Feasibility study for the establishment of factory production of concrete blocks

abdulnaser salih hadi; zohair hassan abdullah; alla farhan talib


This research dealt with detailed studying of project construction of factory production of concrete blocks and presented by manufacturing of building blocks by depending on the Iraqi designs and specifications and local building materials. Due to rebuilding and building movement inter country especially in field of the construction building units that speed working and needing of local market for half manufacturing materials or completed manufacture, the state and government work to block this type of projects because the projects have been important in bring and absorb labors those break up of work in addition to exploit of local raw materials in manufacturing without need to import and arrange on this of loss in different coin that country in great need for it. This research aims to analyze of technical path to manufacture hollow concrete blocks and designed with dimensions (15 × 20 × 40 cm), with determine internal layout of location requirements of the factory , economical to calculate production costs, percentage of the profit project , recovery duration of project and net present value. Results appear the annual production costs are equal (919.081.785 dinars), the percentage of profit project is equal (48 %) and recovery duration of project equal (2.3 year) and net present value was positive. and emphasize to an importance construction of this project.

Understand the underlying structure of the determinants of overall job performance evaluation

amer ali alatawy; saad ali alanezy


The present research aims to explore content nature of latent structure of antecedents of overall job performance ratings based upon previous researchers' notions and opinions in explaining comprehensive multi view for job performance dimensions. This view agrees that job performance for employee includes three main dimensions (task performance, citizenship performance and counterproductive work behavior). Conceptual and empirical purport for this research depend on three key directions. The first direction proceeds to knowing relationship nature among three performance dimensions and overall job performance ratings. The second direction aims to explore relative importance for these dimensions on overall job performance ratings. In the third direction, this research attempts to know interrelationships among these three dimensions. By using structural equation modeling, the research's hypotheses were tested and some of meaningful recommendations were formulated.

Innovations of modern payment systems and the effectiveness of monetary policy With particular reference to experience the Central Bank of Iraq

sheren badre baroudy; thurayah alkhazraji


That the spread of Settlement Systems of Electronic Payments brought about a fundamental change in the mechanism of settlement of payments &direct them towards electronic means of non-monetary means &systems used to transfer cash balances from one account to another &settle payments between banks in order to keep pace with global economic developments have been taken by monetary authorities representative of Iraq's Central Bank set of actions & measures which were based on a number of pillars of artistic &technical legislative to create the future trends towards the development of settlement system of payments of Iraq particularly since the Central Bank usually owns all the propulsion systems of high-value &determine the rules &principles that govern these systems, as well as the importance of their role in ensuring &providing the security &effectiveness payment systems of all kinds.
The (Iraqi Payment System – I.P.S) which started the Iraq's Central Bank
Its application & supervision of its implementation since (2004) an integrated system for the settlement of payments between Iraqi banks &works according to the best mechanisms & international standards & consistent with the requirements of the financial environment & the global banking modern-dependent information & communication technology in order to promote the Banking Sector of Iraq & risk reduction & prevention of movements is safe for cash flow & put it on a competitive basis from which to sustain its competitiveness & keep pace with changes the New Economy.

National income and expenditure on education

kathim saad alarajy


Take the education sector occupies a large portion of the concerns of writers and researchers because of its important role in achieving the economic development process as it contributes to the provision of efficient human resources needed by the economic sectors as the lack of such cadres and development is a fundamental problem to the achievement of this process of economic development. Therefore, we find confirmation by economists according to their attitudes on the importance of the human race and considered the engine that pulls the economic development process forward. Has given so much of the world, with different degrees of economic development, a growing interest in the process of human capital formation and the need to increase spending by
The research was based on the premise (that the low level of spending on education would be a major reason for the low level of scientific development, and access to staff is an efficient barrier to achieving the economic development process)
The research aims to indicate the role of the education sector in the development process sought by the developing countries, including Iraq, in addition to its role in solving many economic problems such as unemployment and economic sectors, including the supply of needed skilled labor. And the statement of the relationship between increased spending on education and access to educational outputs capable of denominational leadership development in the country.
The research concept and the concept of income and expenditure forms in addition to the reality of Iraq's education system and its development in different educational levels, elementary, secondary and university in addition to the identification of indicators of expenditure on education and development.
The research found a number of conclusions to mention some of them:
Low rates of financial allocations to the education sector, which led to the low rate of compound growth of expenditure on education compared with the Arab countries and developing countries.
High rate of growth in the number of students is greater than the growth rate of the number of universities, which impact on the scientific level of students and scientific competence of the outputs of education.
The importance of spending on education in solving the problem of unemployment and cuts in rates.

Simplify the input and portfolio-building measures, hazardous optimal Markowitz model the framework for a single index

maitham rabee hadi


Portfolio selection has been one of the most important research field in contemporary finance. In this context Markowitz's model (1952) has been considered as a pioneering solution for this problem. A lot of models and extensions have been proposed to improve the performance of portfolio which have led to a great number of researches and studies with the aim of formulating risk and returns of economic factors and understanding diversification in investment strategies. Markowitz's portfolio selection model present two main difficulties for being applied. First one, data required. If we could accurate expectations about future returns for each asset and the correlation of returns between each pair of assets then, the Markowitz's model under certain conditions and supposed known the investors' utility function, would produce the optimal portfolio. The obtaining of accurate forecast of input data needed for this model is a difficult task, particularly in the case of covariance matrix between securities. The estimation can get very complex as the portfolio size becomes large. For instance, if the number of stocks in a portfolio is (3000), as it is in NYSE, we need to estimate approximately (4.5) millions correlation coefficients!. The large number of inputs can be computationally impractical due to the large number of estimates that have to be made. Second one, there is a computational difficulty associated to the resolution of large-scale quadratic programming problems with a dense covariance matrix. To simplify analysis, the single-index model assumes that there is only one economic factor that causes the systematic risk affecting all stock returns and this factor can be represented by the rate of return on a market index. According to this model, the return and risk of any stock can be decomposed into two parts, one due to firm-specific factors and the other due to general factors that affect the all market. With this model, only the betas of the individual securities and the market variance need to be estimated to calculate covariance(Markowitz's model problem). Hence, the index model greatly reduces the quality and quantity of inputs and procedures that would have to be made to constructing optimal portfolio. But the model's beta suffers from imprecision in its estimation. So, developed techniques to modify it and make it more accurate.
Thus, this research will aim to introduce the single-index model as a potential solution to simplify the inputs and procedures of the optimal portfolio calculation. To achieve this objective, we will discuss the assumptions and concepts underlying the single-index model. We also will outline the estimation procedures of the model and highlight issues about model's beta estimation and the most important techniques to solve it, and test all that in the Iraq stock exchange for the period (January 2007- March 2011).
The research found a number of conclusions and the most important of these is that the index portfolio is an efficient portfolio only if all alpha values are zero. This makes intuitive sense. Unless security analysis reveals that a security has a nonzero alpha, including it in the active portfolio would make the portfolio less attractive. In addition to the security's systematic risk, which is compensated for by the market risk premium (through beta), the security would add its specific risk to portfolio variance. With a zero alpha, however, the latter is not compensated by an addition to the nonmarket risk premium. Hence, if all securities have zero alphas, the optimal weight in the active portfolio will be zero, and the weight in the index portfolio will be(1.0). However, when security analysis uncovers securities with nonmarket risk premiums(nonzero alphas), the index portfolio is no longer efficient.
The research found a number of recommendations and the most important of these is necessity to adopt the most widely used model in the simplification of building the optimal portfolio, which is a single-index model and follow the best techniques to estimate and modify its parameters, especially beta.

Financial crisis and its implications in the policy of dividends (Case Study)

ayad tahir mohammd; khanom norykakeh


The purpose of this study is to search in the international financial crisis and its reflections in the dividends policies for a sample of listed companies in Dubai Financial Market.
The study launched from the cognitive dimensions for the two concepts of the financial crisis and the dividends policies to show the dependence or the change of the followed policies of dividend of the companies before the occurrence of the financial crisis which stormed the international financial markets and shifted to the other markets such as the evolving markets and to the markets of Arab Gulf countries, especially Dubai Financial Market, because of the importance of dividend policies, since they are the most important financial decisions as a source of internal financing for the firms and return on investment of the shareholders from one side, and their reflections on the prices of the shares in the financial markets from the other side.
The study summarized a set of conclusions, which was the most important one is the consistence of the analysis findings and the test of the main first and second hypotheses, whereas the study confirmed the mistakenness of the third hypothesis, the most important recommendation is that the companies’ management should not resort to reserve the profits excessively as a source of financing in the light of the financial crisis which would affect negatively the prices of shares of such companies in the financial markets.

مؤشرات ضمان جودة التعليم العالي ومتطلبات التطبيق (دراسة تحليلية لبعض المؤاشرات النوعية المعتمدة في بعض كليات جامعة كربلاء)

abbad aldaame


The quality assurance standards have been implemented in so many university and education institution in the developed countries while the Arabic and Iraqi university stil away from such standard .Therefore ,more research and studies are needed to implement the standards that sit weal the higher education institutions environments in the Arabic university .The Eygeptian University may be considered first as there institutions have made good experience in this fold .The Iraqi university also do the same . However ,the problems that ongoing for the last Three decades such an poor education and research equipments, absence of scientific communication with the other university in world, unavailiablity of good information techniques and good libraries are the main obstacles in providing qualified graduate .So that, the implementation of the quality assurance standards well change such poor impression above the Iraqi university .For instant, the colleges of Agriculture Engincerivy and science were taken an example for improving the quality assurance standards . Agriculture college has gain the lushest credit (39,25%) according to the standards that been implemented and Eng .& sciences colleges on the other hand ,almost were similar at alower than the acceptable (65%) level .This means that there two college may reach the required standard often overcoming for the obstacles .

Applied Study of Malthusian law of Population Growth; Statistical Comparison in Indian Experience

Nathier Abas Ibrahim


India is the countries with ancient civilization and occupies an area of ​​more than 3 million km 2 extends from the Himalayas in the north to the Indian Ocean in the south and called the Indian subcontinent and an area of ​​approximately 2.5% of the area of ​​the world and is home to nearly one sixth of the world's population. During the second half of the last century has increased India's population of approximately 650 million people and this number is the form of growth rate and density of population highs, so the country is needed to reduce the rates of fertility and mortality, noting that the late leader Gandhi was first created a system of birth control in the continent of Asia and the system could not be the state of applied to all members of the community because of the different classes and religions, and the presence of layers and a poor immigrant from one region to another within the country can not be controlled to determine their offspring.
Occupies India now second place in the world after China in terms of population, as over 1.03 billion people, and quartz more than sixty years of independence and the application program of birth control has decreased the birth rate of 42 to 28 per 1000 children and accompanied by a decrease in mortality rates and decreased the proportion of males to females by 4% from 1901 to 2001.
The Indian society of societies semi-stable, the researchers Biswas & Ebraheem in 1986 tested the hypotheses of this community under the hypothesis of low fertility rates within a planned program with a slight decrease in mortality rates based on the statistics of India for the years 1971 and 1981 Based on hypotheses Coale 1972 communities almost stable. This research is an attempt to test the same hypotheses based on census 2001 and a comparison between the conclusions with some statistics to estimate the coming years.

Impact of the Alantbahih of subordinates in the promotion of individual creativity: Survey of the views of a sample of employees of the hospitals in Al-Zahrawi and Ibn Sina in the province of Nineveh, educational

sandeyah marwan sultan; maysoun abdullah ahmed


The Present research study of the impact of operations Alantbahip in the promotion of individual creativity, in the light of analysis of the opinions of subordinates in some of the hospitals in the province of Nineveh, who were randomly selected from hospitals.
To this consensus has been promised to design a questionnaire for this purpose, and distributed to the respondents, who numbered (50) person. After analyzing the inter data obtained benefits from the equations of correlation and regression, which was preceded by the provision of a conceptual framework prepared by the researchers, taking advantage of the views of the authors regarding the concepts of individual creativity and operations Alantbahip, concluded researchers at a number of results, which were in the light of crystal matching of the conclusions, perhaps the most important: that the scientific Alantbahip a central role in the promotion of individual creativity is closely influence the subordinates, and so on as he went to the book in theoretical frameworks of organizational behavior since the twenties of the last century, and in light of the conclusions provided researchers their proposals, which emphasize the importance of giving the subject of operations Alantbahip appropriate attention by managers and employees together in ways that enhance individual creativity of subordinates.

Recommending marketing strategy and its role in achieving competitive advantage An exploratory search of the views of a sample of workers in the company of the Sufis Industries / Baghdad

fouad hamoudy alattar


Business Organizations in the 21st century face many challenges represented in the development of information technology & in changing toward market globalization in addition to the change in customers wants & tastes . This requires determining Marketing strategies in View of contemporary Marketing concepts represented by marketing customization strategy that is all what the customer wants . Marketing is going to be reformulated according to the customers view point by changing the designs of making & marketing the products to him according to his desire . The mutter is more than that since changing in marketing practices focuses on the customer himself , making him the core of all marketing processes . this makes it necessary for organizations to adopt a developed information technology so as to set precise data bases to know the customer & determine the marketing strategies appro pirate for the production process to meet his desire & target him rightly .
To full fill the aims of the study 52- item questionnaire is used investigating the opinions of a sample of employees in the general company for Wool Industries / Baghdad . It is used a main tool for data collection , in addition to the use of the balanced mean , standard deviation , response tensely , T & F tests & R2 correlative in analyzing the answers .
The study reached at a number of conclusion , of which is that there is a connection & effectiveness relationship between marketing customization strategy & competitive advantage . In the light of this relationship , some recommendations are proposed in accordance with those conclusions .

Assess the financial performance indicators of commercial banks Comparative research of a sample of commercial banks and the Iraqi Arab Emirates For the period from 2004 2009

abdulhussain jasim mohammad; ahmed hussain


 This research theme evaluation indicators of the financial performance of commercial banks which is one of the most important topics that show the actual performance of the banks,
The This research evaluated the performance indicators Financial for a sample of commercial banks, Iraqi and United Arab Emirates and the comparison between the indicators of financial performance for the banking Baghdad and east, shrugged off the Iraqis, Dubai and Abu Dhabi, UAE nationals, and that this research has the importance of gaining it sheds light on the side by the difference between the assessment of financial performance of commercial banks from one country to another and shows the performance of any bank in terms of superior financial indicators from country to country, from one bank to another and research has reached some conclusions which include:
• The research found that the performance of the banking Iraqi commercial banks for the period examined, the best performance of the bank to commercial banks UAE sample, because the Iraqi banks achieved (5) points for power (5) weaknesses of the UAE banks.
• clear from the analysis of the banks separately (Baghdad, the Middle East, Dubai, Abu Dhabi) that the Bank of Baghdad achieved (4) strengths and Bank of the Middle East achieved (3) the strengths of either Bank of Dubai has achieved (1) point of strength and As for Bank of Abu Dhabi it did not achieve the strengths and, instead, low-achieving weaknesses negative hit (-7) and this shows that the Gulf banks affected by the repercussions of the global financial crisis that occurred in (2008) in contrast to commercial banks, Iraq, which was far from the effects and repercussions of the global financial crisis .
In light of the conclusions of the research some of the recommendations including:
 guide the commercial banks using modern and advanced methods in the performance of its business in order to reach better performance in line with developments in financial markets.
 Identify the cause of poor performance of Bank of Iraq (Middle East) against the power of the performance of the commercial Bank of Baghdad and take advantage of the methods used for the bank to improve his performance.
 When you stand on the reality of the performance of commercial banks in the UAE sample of the research must determine the cause of poor performance of Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank for the performance of the power of Dubai Commercial Bank and make use of the methods used for the bank to improve his performance.
 A study with more expansion and the other performance indicators for the purpose of standing on the performance of commercial banks and evaluate their performance and to identify the causes of deterioration and weakness

Part of a proposal for Anmozj default for disclosure of accounting for corporate profits and returns of its shares Experimental study in the Iraqi market for securities

salah mahdi salih


Dispite Accounting Disclosure of Corporations Income and its Stocks Return in External Financial Statement its an Important Requirement, So it is Expected to Have Exceptional Affect in Investors Decisions, Because this Assist in planning Their Investments in Future.
The Aim of This Research is to Construct A Framework for Virtual Model of Accounting Disclosure about Income of Corporations and its Stockcs Return.
The Research Apply on Asample of(12) Corporation listed in Iraqi Stock Exchange and This Corperations Distributed to (12) Industries (Manufacture Agriculture and Serrivce)
The Research Conclude many Conclusions, The First one is Focus on Accounting Model Must be Construct depending on Advanced Scientific Models and also Depending on Financial Ratios and Indecators to Give A Suitable Accurance to Predict for Corporations Income and its Stocks Return

Impact of knowledge management on the quality of health service An Empirical Study in the year-Hussein Hospital / Karbala

hayder khathyer jawan


Knowledge management is one of the contemporary subjects which drew attention of all small organization ,including the health sector ,due to the increase of completion thought knowledge management all facts ,opinions work methods experiments, experience and information that the individual and organization own are unified and mixed ,giving then values and keeping them continually .
At the same time the power of quality management has increase in these organizations for the power in any organization ,is connected to the ability of the organization and its role in achieving the best services.
The present study deals with analysis the effect between knowledge management and the dimensions of the quality of health services depending on the hypothesis which starts that there is an effect relationship between knowledge management and its dimension of the quality of health service.
Al-Hussein general hospital in Karbala is chosen as the study place .the researcher used a questionnaire as a main tool for collecting data from the meant-in-the-subject the hypothesis is tested by certain statistical method.
In the light of results of the analysis ,the researcher reaches at some conclusion ,the most important of which is that there are meaningful effect relationship between knowledge management and the dimensions of the quality of health service.

Following elements of the organizational climate in the management of university performance survey of the views of a sample of members of the body was teaching at the University of Al Muthanna

majid joudeh jasim; salam jasim hamoud


This study aimed to Explore the relationship between the elements of The Organizational Climate and The Managing of the Academic Performance, By standing on main hypothesis that(there is significant relationship and effect of the Factors of The Organizational Climate and The Managing of the Academic Performance)depending on the survey by using designed questionnaire distributed on the study sample 50 professors within Five Colleges from AL-Muthana University(the community of the study)within the academic year(2009-2010)in addition to the questionnaire of gathering study data, the searchers also used the personal
interviews ,all this data putting with using of SPSS.V.10 ,Program to analyzing it ,The most important finding is that achieving the study hypothesis of finding the relation between the organizational climate factors and the managing of the academi performance.

Impact of organizational culture in Organisational Innovation A field study in the company Medal for dairy products and food, Ltd. / Karbala

hayder mohammad abdulsahib


The present study aims at identifying the relationship and effect of organizational culture , all its types , on to organizational in novtaion in AL- wisam company ltd . for Dairy product and food stuffs in Karbala . To achieve this aim , the study is devided into four section. The First section is generaL survey for the literature.the second present alheoreticaL
Background for the study variables . The Third deats with describing and specifyang the study variables and Testing the hypotheses the fourth presents conclusions and recommendations . the study simple involves ( 26 ) workers . The results of the statistical analysis , by using correLation analysis and regression anayLiss ass yre the correct-ness of the main and minor hypotheses .the study reaches at a number of recommend actions , the most important of which is that the management of the company has to encourage the achievement culture among Labourers, which would create a strong will for work in order to achieve the company goals