ISSN: 1818-1074

Issue 21,

Issue 21


Fundamentals of Commodity Futures Contracts With Focusing on Crude Oil Futures Contracts

Maithem R. Hadi; Mohammad A. I. Al-Ameri

THE IRAQI MAGAZINE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES, Volume 4, Issue 21, Pages 1-45

Spot markets allow investors to purchase and sell spot tools for immediate delivery and immediate payment. In some cases, however , an investor my be concerned with the price at which he will be able to transact in the future. One way to eliminate the price risk on transaction that will not be completed until some future date is to enter into deterred delivery contract. There are two types of markets for deferred delivery transaction,forward contracts market and future contracts market. A forward contract is a bilateral contract between a purchaser and a seller. The asset to de exchanged and the settlement price and date of delivery is whatever is mutually agreeable to the two transactors. When the settlement date arrives, the buyer tenders cash equal to the previously agreed upon settlement price to the seller , and the seller delivers the previously agreed upon asset to the buyer. For some assets , buying and selling for deferred delivery is facilitated be the organization of a formal exchange markets. One of the principal characteristics of exchange trading is the establishment of standardized settlement dates at which time buyers and sellers tender payment and delivery,respectively,against their open obligations. Standardized settlement dates make for more homogeneous contracts and thereby improve the liquidity of the market. Contracts for deferred delivery entered into an organized exchanges are called futures. Thus, this paper aimed to discussing the fundamentals underlying the commodity,in general,energy and crude oil futures contracts,in particular. This paper reached to many conclusions,most important of them is the commodity futures contracts is an organized deferred delivery contract in contrast to the forward contract which is over the counter contract,and the physical commodity is represent it's underlying assets not the financial tool like look in the financial futures. The commodity futures contract do not have success until met the number of requirements. First,the commodity must be homogeneous and fungible. There must be a substantial hedgers interested in the market,and there must be price volatility in the spot market for underlying commodity. The contract should offer the two liquidity characteristics: low transactions costs and highly elastic excess demand. The contract needed to be traded in small enough lots to generate the speculators interest from non-industry concerns. It also needed to be close linked to the spot market in such a way that sufficient price convergence between the two markets would render it a viable hedging tool for industry participants. This paper approached to many recommendations,most important of them is necessity to benefit from obvious advantages of commodity futures contract by establishing market to these contracts in Iraq for trading,on one side,in crude oil and distillates futures contracts in order to hedging the price risk of exported Iraqi crude oil and of imported distillates and,on other side,in wheat, sugar, rice and other consuming commodities that imported to Iraq in huge quantities.

Induction of the financial status for the modern cement factory of Kufa in 2005-2009 Depending on the financial analysis in 1996-2004 ; A practical study.

Rdhi Sahab Abo Hamid; Arshad A-jasim

THE IRAQI MAGAZINE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES, Volume 4, Issue 21, Pages 46-74

This Study aims at evaluating the Financial Position of new Kufa cement Factory for (1996-2004) Period, and then Forecasting of Future state until 2009.
The Break –even Chart, Financial Ratios (Liquidity Ratios, Activity Ratios) are used for analysis of study data.
The finding indicated that the Kufa Factory is achieved highly Profit During 1996 -2004 ,especially in the first half of that Period , and the its Factory Maintained With highly monetary Liquidity , Finally , the Study revealed appositive and significant relationship between independent variable (time)and dependent variable (sale ,profit ,production ,total cost ) .
The study present a set of recommendation that may improve the firm performance through using suitable information and data in financial analysis, and retraining of human resources employed in firm in order to maximizing the productive of firm production and capital.

The Connection between Organizational Thought and Scientific Research.

Akram Alyasiry; Amal Abed Momed Ali; Salh Mahdi Mohammed

THE IRAQI MAGAZINE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES, Volume 4, Issue 21, Pages 110-130

The research come under a series of Researches aim to study the managerial and Organizational Though from Islamic approach which we are calling for it.
The research introduced a thinking frame to explain the Scientific contribution in Empowerment domain according to two dimension, first is the modern organizational though, second dimension is the Islamic thought through exploring purports of the Quran Ayat that were converse the empowerment in its various meaning, in order to fit with behavior of individuals and working organizations in our Society.

Estimation & analysis the sensitivity of procedures partial and total productivity

Zee nab; Haseen; Ali Abdul Hussein; Abdul Hussein Haseen

THE IRAQI MAGAZINE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES, Volume 4, Issue 21, Pages 131-147

Production(outputs) indicator is sufficient but not efficient to give a real state about the inputs quantity, while total productivity(p) gives the relationship between inputs & outputs(X). P=output inputs
The total productivity (Pi) was not equal the total of partial productivity p (i.e) :-
In this article we used new procedure to find the total productivity (p) from partial productivity .( ( and then we evaluate the total quantity (p) .
Also in this research we have found the standard partial productivity to inputs quantity by using analysis of sensitivity to inputs

Usage of Regression Analysis as style in cost Estimation and Decision Making

Mohammed W . Abase; Thamir G. Weerdy

THE IRAQI MAGAZINE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES, Volume 4, Issue 21, Pages 159-172

The accountant is distinguish between fixed costs and variable costs through checking of ledger accounts and its classification into three groups : fixed costs , variable costs , and mixed costs . then separate of mixed costs and determine the ratio of variable costs and ratio of fixed costs in the total of mixed costs in order to be taken into account in estimation of future costs . this process is perform on basis of experience and personal diligence , then loss of large amount of objectivity and that is trace wrong decisions .
This research aims to preparation of cost equation to research sample company with regression analysis style and knowledge of its effect on decisions marking .
This research depends on the following hypothesis :-
(( taking the regression analysis model in preparation of cost equation will ensure correct separation between fixed costs and variable costs and estimation of future costs , and then providing relevant information to the users in order to true decisions making )) .
This research is divided into paragraphs deals with the research methodology , theoretical presentation to this model , hypothesises , and tests , then an applicative part which included determine the depended variable and independed variable , then implementing the model and its evaluation process , also include model effect on decisions making , then showing the important conclusions that revealed by the study and giving the suggested recommendations .

The Relationship between Training and Intelligence: A Discovery study in the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research.

Amaar Abdul Al lateef

THE IRAQI MAGAZINE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE SCIENCES, Volume 4, Issue 21, Pages 173-205

Training is a subject which takes little care from organization managers and Leaders because of their traditional point of view toward it and the absence of the social and psychological aspects concerning the management fields in general and training in particular for this reason the importance of research emerges about the relationship between training and emotional intelligence learning so as to enable persons and organizations to benefit from training. Training resembles one of the main and important stages of learning the emotional intelligence.
The research paper intends to link between training and learning the emotional intelligence and resembles an attempt to improvement and development of information and skills and capacities of the affecting forces in organization, and to manifest the training role and influences upon persons in particular and organizations in general as well as clarifying the matters of intelligence and emotion and emotional intelligence and be familiar with stages and processes of learning the emotional intelligence in general and training in particular.
The research paper concluded to a main conclusion namely: that the emotional intelligence is important factor in the success of persons in personal level and the work field inside the organization as well as the social life and this depends upon the presence of good and drastic training to achieve that.